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Pituitary disorders

Dr.Shivaprasad C

Pituitary disorders

Disorders of pituitary hormone excess

1.Growth hormone excess – Results in gigantism and acromegaly.

2.Hyperprolactinemia or high prolactin levels –Common causes are prolactinoma (prolactin secreting tumor), other tumors in pituitary region, some medicines, hypothyroidism, etc.

3.Cushing’s disease results from excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion. The patient develops features of steroid hormone excess as ACTH drives the adrenal gland to secrete excessive amount of steroids.

4.Other disorders of hormone excess like TSH secreting pituitary tumor are very rare.

Disorders of pituitary hormone deficiency

1.Growth hormone deficiency results in short stature in childhood. Adult growth hormone deficiency is detrimental for general wellbeing, heart and bone  health.

2.Secondary hypothyroidism is a rare cause of thyroid  hormone deficiency resulting from inadequate secretion of thyroid stimulating  hormone (TSH) from the pituitary.

3.Secondary hypoadrenalism  results from deficiency of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)  secretion.

4.Hypogonadism results from deficiency of LH and  FSH, the pituitary hormones responsible for gonadal (ovary and testis) development and its functioning.

Pituitary Tumors

Non-functioning pituitary tumors are the ones which do not secrete any active hormonal components.

Functioning pituitary tumors are those which secrete hormones as already discussed in disorders of pituitary hormone excess.

Pituitary Inflammation

Lymphocytic hypophysitis is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the pituitary commonly occurring after pregnancy.

Tuberculosis and other infections can also affect pituitary.